Academic Year 2021/2022 - 1° Year
Teaching Staff Credit Value: 6
Scientific field
Taught classes: 42 hours
Term / Semester:

Learning Objectives


    The course aims to provide the basic theoretical knowledge of descriptive and inferential statistics useful for the study of biological, biomedical, socio-sanitary and clinical phenomena. To this end, during the course, practical examples will be carried out using also the Spreadsheets (Excel, LibreOffice Calc).

  • Physiology

    Physiology studies the human vital functions, even in comparative manner. It discusses how the human organism obtains and maintains the homeostasis of its internal environment at molecular, cellular and tissue levels, in the context of the changes of the surrounding environment.

  • General and applied microbiology

    The course of Microbiology aims to provide to the students the basis to understanding the biological and pathogenic characteristics of microorganisms that play a role in human pathology.

    At the end of the present course the student must acquire appropriate knowledge:

    a) on the infections caused by the different pathogens in the different human anatomical districts;

    b) on the principles of the laboratory tests in diagnosis and identification of pathogenic microorganisms, including appropriate specimen collection.

    The course also aims to illustrate the various methods of prevention of microbial infections and the main causes of infection related to specific professional activity.

Course Structure

  • Physiology

    Frontal lessons.

  • General and applied microbiology

    Traditional lectures, with the support of slides and educational videos of some theoretical-practical topics.

    Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.

Detailed Course Content

    1. Recalls of the preliminary knowledge: variables, constants, measurement scales, summation, production, percentages, ratios, combinatorics.

    2. Collection and organization of data. Central trend indices. Dispersion indices.

    3. Graphical representation of data.

    4. Calculation of probabilities and probability distributions.

    5. Sampling, confidence intervals, statistical inference.

    6. Correlation measures, derivation ratios, comparison between samples.

    7. Statistical significance test.

    8. Linear and multiple regression

    9. Epidemiological statistics.

  • Physiology

    1. Cardiovascular system

    - Heart functions. Cardiac automatism: pacemaker and conduction tissue. Electrical and mechanical cycle of the heart. Heart sounds. Systolic and cardiac output range. Starling law of the heart. The heart rate and its regulation. Cardiovascular nervous control.

    - The fetal circulation.

    - Blood pressure and its control.

    2. Respiratory system

    - Respiratory mechanics. Respiratory mechanics. Pulmonary surfactant. Functions of the pleura. Pneumothorax. Pulmonary gas exchange.

    - Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

    - Adjustment of breathing. Peripheral and central chemoreceptors. Respiratory centers and their functional significance.

    3. Urinary System

    - The functional unit of the kidney. Functions of nephron. Ultrafiltration glomerular functions. The clearance.

    - The process of reabsorption. The obligatory and optional reabsorption in the renal tubules. Action of aldosterone and vasopressin.

    - The concentration of urine: the loop of Henle function.

    - Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

    4. Digestive system, Metabolism and Nutrition

    - Digestive canal. Gastric secretion. Nervous and humoral regulation of gastric secretion. Exocrine pancreatic secretion. Secretin and pancreozymin. gastrointestinal hormones.

    - Liver and gallbladder bile.

    5. Endocrine System

    - Generalities on hormones. Definition and classification of hormones. Mechanisms of action of hormones.

    - Hypothalamic hormones

    - Adenohypophysis; neurohypophysis

    - The thyroid

    - The adrenal cortex

    - The phosphocalcic metabolism. Calcitonin. The parathyroid hormone. Vitamins D. Adjustment of serum calcium.

    - The endocrine pancreas

    - Function of the male and female reproductive organs

    6. Nervous System.

    - Tactile sensitivity

    - The thermal and pain sensitivity

    - The cortical areas

    - Autonomic nervous system. Functional anatomy of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system. The adrenal medulla.

  • General and applied microbiology

    1. Introduction to Microbiology: the pathogenic mechanisms of microorganisms, microorganism-host relationships.

    2. The bacteria: the organization of the bacterial cell; mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis: role of bacteria in disease.

    3. Fungi: fungal cell structure; mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis.

    4. Virus: Characteristics of virus and their replication; mechanisms of viral pathogenesis; types of viral infection: acute and persistent infection.

    5. The antimicrobial chemotherapy: the main characteristics of antimicrobial drugs and their mechanisms of resistance.

    6. Vaccines.

    7. General principles of laboratory diagnostics of infectious diseases.

    8. General principles of sterilization, disinfection, and antisepsis.

    9. Infections of the skin, bones and joints.

    10. Infections of the uro-genital tract.

    11. Infections of the fetus and the newborn.

    12. Infections of the Respiratory tract. Tubercolosis.

    13. Infections of the gastrointestinal tract.

    14. Infections of the nervous system.

    15. Opportunistic and nosocomial infections.

Textbook Information

  • Physiology

    Costanzo L. – FISIOLOGIA - V Ed. - Casa Ed. Edra, 2017

    Silverthon D.U. – FISIOLOGIA. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

  • General and applied microbiology

    Cevenini R.. Sambri V., Microbiologia e microbiologia clinica, Per i Corsi di Laurea in professioni sanitarie – Ed. Piccin

    All students can use didactic material downloadable from the Studium UniCt page at the following link: