Academic Year 2018/2019 - 1° Year
Teaching Staff Credit Value: 6
Taught classes: 42 hours
Term / Semester:

Learning Objectives

  • Electrical and Electronic Measurements

    The specific training objectives, which are functional to the professional figure that the course intends to train, that is the expert in the field of electronic electrical measurements, sensors and transduction elements inherent the field of radiology medical for pictures and radiotherapy.

    In this context, the course aims to train technicians with a suitable basic scientific training and adequate competences of the general technical-scientific content and methods of electronic engineering with particular emphasis on the basic of metrology.

  • Radiobiology e Radioprotection

    To acquire knowledge about the following topics:

    • Theoretical principles of radiobiology
    • Interaction of ionizing radiations with human body
    • Principles of dose fractionation in radiotehrapy
    • Technical aspects of radioprotection
  • The physics of instrumentation and devices

    The main objective of the lectures is the knowledge of the physics fundamentals of instrumentation useful to medical diagnostics and therapy.

Course Structure

  • Electrical and Electronic Measurements


  • Radiobiology e Radioprotection


  • The physics of instrumentation and devices

    Lectures and tests (entrance, on going and end-of-course verification).

Detailed Course Content

  • Electrical and Electronic Measurements

    Outline of measurement systems

    Block diagram of a measurement system. Influence and Interference. Compensation process.

    Examples of instruments: the mAmpere-meter, the pressure gauge.

    Elements of Metrology

    Measurements. International System of Units. Uncertainty A and B. Calibration diagram. Sensitivity and resolution in measuring instrument

    The analog oscilloscope

    Block diagram of the analog oscilloscope. Working principle. Main controls of the oscilloscope.

    The digital oscilloscope

    Block diagram of the digital oscilloscope. Sampling of an analog signal. Criteria of selecting a sampling procedure. Comparison between analog and digital oscilloscope.

    Virtual Instruments PC-based, LabView and acquisition boards.


    Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs), strain gauge, accelerometer, fluxgate magnetometer, conditioning circuits.

    Experimental activities

  • Radiobiology e Radioprotection

    Interactions between ionizing radiations with human body

    Physical, Chemical and Biological effects of ionizing radiations


    Principles of Dose fractionation and clinical applications

    Radiosensibility and radiocurability of biological tissues and cancer


    Principles of clinical radiotherapy

    Theoretical principles of radioprotection

  • The physics of instrumentation and devices

    X-ray production and properties: fundamentals. X-ray tube design. The X-ray spectrum. Electrical characteristics. The supply generator. Control circuits. Exposure control.

    Interactions of X- and gamma radiation with matter. Photon attenuation and absorption coefficients. Interactions with atom. Subject contrast. Radiation dose. Detectors.

    Analog images. Vision. Image detector surface. Image quality factors. Scatter and grids. Image quality measurement.

    The digital image. Signal input. The image matrix. Digital image quality. Digital image processing. Digital image detectors: computed radiography. Direct radiography. Digital fluorography.

    Computed tomography. Basic sequential scanner design. Single slice helical/spiral computed tomogaphy. Multislice spiral computed tomography. Computed tomography. radiation dose.

    Magnetic resonance: principles. The proton in a magnetic field. Relaxation time constants. Pulse sequences. T1 and T2 signal measurement. Magnetic resonance imaging.

Textbook Information

  • Electrical and Electronic Measurements

    A. Brandolini, R. Ottoboni, Fondamenti di metrologia, società editrice Esculapio

    G. Iuculano, D.Mirri, Misure elettroniche, CEDAM

    E. O. Doebelin, Measurement systems, McGraw Hill

    Norme UNI 4546, lecture notes

  • Radiobiology e Radioprotection

    Diagnostica per immagini e Radioterapia - Cittadini

  • The physics of instrumentation and devices

    Dowsett David J., Kenny Patrick A., Johnston R. Eugene, The Physics of Diagnostics Imaging, CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.

    Lecture notes provided during the course.