Academic Year 2021/2022 - 1° Year
Teaching Staff Credit Value: 6
Taught classes: 42 hours
Term / Semester:

Learning Objectives

  • Electrical and Electronic Measurements

    The specific training objectives, which are functional to the professional figure that the course intends to train, that is the expert in the field of electronic electrical measurements, sensors and transduction elements inherent the field of radiology medical for pictures and radiotherapy.

    In this context, the course aims to train technicians with a suitable basic scientific training and adequate competences of the general technical-scientific content and methods of electronic engineering with particular emphasis on the basic of metrology.

    Knowledge and understanding

    The student will acquire knowledge on metrology, measurement systems, sensors and transducers also in the context of prevention and radiation protection. The main applications will be related to the fields of electronic engineering polarized towards a professionalizing aspect in accordance with the Degree Course.

    Applying knowledge and understanding

    At the end of the course, students will have the necessary skills to perform measurements, with appropriate methodology and systems, identifying their main sections and functionalities.

    Making judgements

    Students will acquire autonomy of judgment for an accurate analysis of the systems considered.

    Communication skills

    The student will reinforce the technical language of measurement systems with the goal of being able to adequately present him/herself on the job market with adequate skills and an appropriate technical profile.

    Learning skills

    The student will be able to autonomously expand his knowledge of electrical and electronic measurements also through in-depth study of reference texts, on articles of specialized scientific journals.

  • Radiobiology e Radioprotection

    To acquire knowledge about the following topics:

    • Theoretical principles of radiobiology
    • Interaction of ionizing radiations with human body
    • Principles of dose fractionation in radiotehrapy
    • Technical aspects of radioprotection
  • The physics of instrumentation and devices

    The main objective of the lectures is the knowledge of the physics fundamentals of instrumentation useful to medical diagnostics and therapy.

Course Structure

  • Electrical and Electronic Measurements

    Frontal lessons

    Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.

  • Radiobiology e Radioprotection


  • The physics of instrumentation and devices

    Lectures and tests (entrance, on going and end-of-course verification).

    Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.

Detailed Course Content

  • Electrical and Electronic Measurements

    Outline of measurement systems

    Block diagram of a measurement system. Influence and Interference. Compensation process.

    Examples of instruments: the mAmpere-meter, the pressure gauge.

    Elements of Metrology

    Measurements. International System of Units. Uncertainty A and B. Calibration diagram. Sensitivity and resolution in measuring instrument

    The analog oscilloscope

    Block diagram of the analog oscilloscope. Working principle. Main controls of the oscilloscope.

    The digital oscilloscope

    Block diagram of the digital oscilloscope. Sampling of an analog signal. Criteria of selecting a sampling procedure. Comparison between analog and digital oscilloscope.

    Virtual Instruments PC-based, LabView and acquisition boards.


    Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs), strain gauge, accelerometer, fluxgate magnetometer, conditioning circuits.

    Experimental activities

  • Radiobiology e Radioprotection

    Interactions between ionizing radiations with human body

    Physical, Chemical and Biological effects of ionizing radiations


    Principles of Dose fractionation and clinical applications

    Radiosensibility and radiocurability of biological tissues and cancer


    Principles of clinical radiotherapy

    Theoretical principles of radioprotection

  • The physics of instrumentation and devices

    X-rays diagnostics: X-rays radiation. X-ray tube. Production of X-rays spectra. X-ray absorption. Radiological imaging. The image intensifier.

    Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine: Radioactivity. The radioactive law of decay. Use of radionuclides in medical diagnosis. Effective half-life. Scintigraphy.

    Tomographic Images: The anatomical planes. Computed Tomography (CT). Single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Positron emission tomography (PET).

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Radio Waves. Gyromagnetic ratio and Larmor frequency. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Devices and Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems.

    Radiation Therapy: The radiation dose. Therapeutic ratio. Conventional radiotherapy. Brachytherapy and radiometabolic therapy. Radiotherapy with external beams. The LINAC.

Textbook Information

  • Electrical and Electronic Measurements

    A. Brandolini, R. Ottoboni, Fondamenti di metrologia, società editrice Esculapio

    G. Iuculano, D.Mirri, Misure elettroniche, CEDAM

    E. O. Doebelin, Measurement systems, McGraw Hill

    Norme UNI 4546, lecture notes

  • Radiobiology e Radioprotection

    Diagnostica per immagini e Radioterapia - Cittadini

  • The physics of instrumentation and devices

    [1] Lascialfari A., Borsa F, Gueli A.M., Principi di fisica per indirizzo biomedico e farmaceutico, EdiSES, 2020

    [2] Bellia G., Fisica per un anno, 21 spunti di conoscenza, Idelson Gnocchi, 2021

    [3] Lecture notes provided during the course.