Academic Year 2021/2022 - 1° Year
Teaching Staff
  • Anatomy of the Human Body: Mariangela Panebianco
  • PHYSIOLOGY - Part II: Venera Cardile
Credit Value: 9
Scientific field
Taught classes: 63 hours
Term / Semester:

Learning Objectives

  • Anatomy of the Human Body

    At the end of the course the student will get the ability to describe, in a complete way and with right terms, the structural organization of the human body in healthy conditions and the contributions of the structure to the function, in order to be able to apply this knowledge to nursing practice. The student will have to demonstrate complete knowledge of the human body, to describe the macro and microscopic constitution of the apparatuses, systems and organs that compose it.


    At the end of the course the student: knows the basic functional mechanisms of excitable cells and synaptic transmission; He is able to describe the basic functioning of muscular, nervous and endocrine systems and their dinamical integration to regulate visceral and relational organizations of human organism; He is able to describe the basic functional mechanisms of homeostasis of the internal medium, the basic functioning of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive and renal systems.

Course Structure

  • Anatomy of the Human Body

    Frontal teaching, e-learning, using PowerPoint, integrating with case reports, images and recent references.


    Lectures and theoretical-practical exercises.

    Should teaching be carried out in mixed mode or remotely, it may be necessary to introduce changes with respect to previous statements, in line with the programme planned and outlined in the syllabus.

    Learning assessment may also be carried out on line, should the conditions require it

Detailed Course Content

  • Anatomy of the Human Body

    The course aims to address the main characteristics of anatomical organization of organs and systems and of the fundamental principles of topographic and clinical anatotomy for nursing practice.


    COURSE PRESENTATION. HUMAN ANATOMICAL REGIONS. Anatomy terminology and structural organization of human body.Human anatomical regions. Anatomical positions and movements of the human body. Human body cavities.

    THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. The structure and functions of the skin. The skin appendages: sebaceous glands, hair, nails, sweat glands.

    THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. Description and characteristics of the principal glands. Position, relationships, and function of: pituitary or pituitary gland (anterior and posterior lobes), epiphysis or pinal gland, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas and gonads.

    THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM. Osteology: description of the skull, of the pectoral girdle (clavicles and scapulae), of the pelvic girdle and of the limbs. Vertebral column, thoracic cage (sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrae, and costal cartilages). Arthrology: description of the synovial joints (articular cartilage, joint capsule, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, discs and menisci, ligaments). Myology: description of the main muscles with their origins, insertions, actions and innervations (axial muscles of the head, neck and back; muscles of the abdominal wall and thorax; muscles of the pectoral girdle and upper limb; appendicular muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower limbs).​

    CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. Heart: function, position, relationships, structure, morphology, valves and fibrous skeleton. Systemic and pulmonary circulation. Cardiac conduction system. General features the vascularization of the head, intra and extracranial cerebral districts (carotid and vertebrobasilar systems and circle of Willis). The main arterial vessels of the thorax and abdomen (aorta and its main branches). The main arterial vessels of the limbs. the most important venous vessels of the head and neck, of the thorax, of the abdomen (with particular attention to the portal vein), veins of the upper limbs (with particular attention to the superficial circulation) and veins of the lower limbs (superficial and deep circulation).

    THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM. Organization of the lymphatic vessels, macroscopic anatomy of the thymus and spleen, structure of lymph nodes.

    THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. General features, functions and organization of the respiratory system. The upper respiratory tract: nose and nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and larynx. The tracheo-bronchial tree: trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. The lungs, the pleurae and the lower respiratory tract. Diaphragm and main respiratory muscles.

    THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. General features, structure and function of the digestive system. -Oral cavity, tongue, teeth and salivary glands - General features, position, relationships, morphology and structure of: Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), Large intestine (cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigma, rectum, anus), Liver, Gallbladder and bile duct, Pancreas.

    THE URINARY SYSTEM. General features of: kidneys and urinary tract (minor and major calyces, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, male and female urethra).

    THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. The female reproductive system: General features of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina and vulva. The male reproductive system: General features of scrotum, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct, prostate, penis.

    NEUROANATOMY. General features and organization (Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System, Autonomous Nervous System). Brainstem, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Telencephalon, Limbic System. Functions of specific cortical areas. Basic features of Spinal cord and spinal nerves. Meninges and cerebrospinal fluid. Principal Cranial Nerves generalities.

    RECEPTORS AND SENSORY ORGANS. Sensory receptors (chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors). Specific sensory system. FINAL CONCLUSIONS.



    Organization of central and peripheral nervous system.

    General organization of sensory functions.

    General organization of motor functions.

    The autonomic nervous system.



    Main features of hormonal activity.

    Main feature of endocrine glands.



    Skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle physiology.

    Mechanisms of muscle contraction.



    Functional anatomy of the heart and blood vessels.

    Cardiac electrical activity.

    Mechanical cycle of the heart.

    The blood circulation

    Main structural and functional characteristics of the blood.

    Principles of hemodynamics

    The circulation of blood in arteries, capillaries, veins.


    Functional anatomy of the respiratory system.

    Respiratory mechanics .Spirometry.

    Gas exchange and transport of respiratory gases in blood.

    The regulation of respiration.



    Functional anatomy of the urinary tract.

    The nephron. The glomerular ultrafiltration

    Reabsorption and tubular secretion.

    The renal regulation of blood pressure, water-salt balance and acid-base balance.



    Functional anatomy of the organs of the digestive system.

    Functions of the stomach

    Intestinal secretions. Bile, pancreatic juice.

    Movements and the intestinal absorption

Textbook Information

  • Anatomy of the Human Body

    1. Ambrosi G. et al.: Human Anatomy - Elements, Ed. Edi-Ermes

    2. Thomas R.G.: Anatomy Atlas, Ed. Piccin

    3. Shier D. et al.: Hole's Anatomy and Physiology for health care jobs, Ed. McGraw-Hill

    4. Passaponti A. et al.: Human Anatomy, Ed. Edi-Ermes (for further informations consult)


    Various Authors - Fisiologia umana - Elementi - Casa Editrice Edi.Ermes, 2019 Milano.

    Various Authors - FISIOLOGIA DELL’UOMO - di Prampero P.E. and Veicsteinas A. (Eds.)- edi.ermes, Milano .

    Silverthorn – FISIOLOGIA –Ambrosiana, Milano.